You only ask the number of pesticide applications, but not the type. Why?


Because of the high number of agro-chemicals available to farmers, it is beyond the scope of this model to incorporate a detailed emissions sub-model for this aspect. The coefficient used for pesticides is 20.5 kg CO2e per application per hectare, which represents the best average available. We conducted a review of this issue in 2010 and concluded that refining this factor was unimportant because of the relatively small portion of the overall footprint represented by pesticides combined with the number of formulations available and the potential difficulties in obtaining information about product manufacture.